- 1 Bladder Cancer & Causes
- 2 Symptoms of Bladder Cancer
- 3 Types of Bladder Cancer
- 4 Bladder Cancer Diagnosis
- 5 Bladder Cancer Treatment in India
- 6 Best bladder cancer oncologists and hospitals In India
- 7 Bladder Cancer Treatment Cost in India
- 8 FAQ’s
Bladder Cancer & Causes
Bladder cancer originates in the tissues of the bladder. Predominantly, such cancers are transitional cell carcinomas, which begin in the bladder’s inner-lining cells. Bladder cancer treatment in India is dispensed at healthcare facilities having a panel of highly-skilled internationally acclaimed specialists and research analysts to its credit.
Bladder cancer can be diagnosed among any age group, but older adults are at significant risk of developing the disease. Some carcinogens have been associated with causing bladder cancer. The most prominent causes of bladder cancer have been listed below. However, further research has been warranted in providing an insight into the conditions that are the culprits of altering the genetic makeup of cells, thereby resulting in uncontrolled cell reproduction.
- Exposure to chemical in industries such as aromatic amines which are found in a dye. Rubber industries, leather processing units, textiles, hair colouring booths, paints, and printing industries also play a significant role in increasing odds of bladder cancer.
- Intake of processed foods such as red meat
- Exposure to Aristolochia Fangchi: Individuals who are exposed to this herb while undergoing a weight loss program were found to be at an elevated risk of bladder cancer and kidney failure when compared to others. A recent research study that used rat models has proved that this herb contains carcinogens.
Symptoms of Bladder Cancer
Signs and symptoms are as follows:
- Haematuria: Spotting, bright red coloured traces found in the microscopic urine sample examination.
- UTI (Urinary Tract Infection)
- Unusual and very frequent urination
- Pain and burning sensation while urinating
Some of these symptoms have been identified in few cases:
- Pelvic pain
- Chronic back pain
- Bone pain
- Loss of weight
- Swelled legs
Types of Bladder Cancer
The various types of bladder cancer are as follows:
Urothelial carcinoma: Previously known as transitional cell carcinoma or TCC. Such tumours originate in the urothelium. Of all the cases of bladder cancers, 90 percent are of urothelial carcinoma. The four subtypes of this cancer are listed below:
- Non-muscle-invasive or superficial urothelial carcinoma: This subtype is confined to the urothelium. Sometimes it spreads into the lamina propria beneath the transitional cells. This form of cancer is sometimes called invasive, though it is not the deeply invasive type that can spread to the muscle layer.
- Muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma or invasive urothelial carcinoma: This subtype of urothelial carcinoma grows in the bladder’s muscularis propria and at times spreads to the fatty deposits or adjacent tissue outside the muscle.
- Papillary urothelial carcinoma: A small polyp or flower-shaped cluster of cancer cells is formed in such type. A noninvasive papillary tumour develops into the hollow cavity of the bladder on a stalk whereas an invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma may invade the lamina propria or muscle layer.
- Flat urothelial carcinoma: Carcinoma in situ, or noninvasive flat urothelial carcinoma develops in the inner linings of the bladder and appears as flat lesions. Invasive flat urothelial carcinoma has the potential to spread deep to the layers of the bladder, especially the muscle layer.
- Squamous cell carcinoma: This type develops in the squamous cells, and 4 percent of all the bladder cancers are Squamous cell carcinoma.
- Adenocarcinoma: Cancer that originates in glandular cells, 2 percent of all bladder cancers are of this type.
Bladder Cancer Diagnosis
Bladder Cancer diagnosis involves undergoing the following tests:
- Microscopic examination of urine sample: If the patient exhibits symptoms of blood in the urine, then he or she will be made to undergo urinary cystography. Urine test alone does not suffice for diagnosis, and hence the urine sample is further tested for bacteria traces.
- Physical examination – This procedure involves examining the rectum and vagina in case of females, whereas among males, the rectum is examined.
If bladder cancer is suspected, then the patient will be referred to a urologist who will make the patient undergo the following tests:
- Imaging Tests: These tests are conducted to determine cancerous traces in the urinary tract. A dye is administered into the system either intravenously or orally.
- Cystoscopy: The procedure involves inserting a long-thin flexible tube, called a cystoscope, through the patient’s urethra and into the bladder. The device’s lens telescope and a fibre-optic lighting system provides images of the inside of urethra. However, this procedure is performed under the influence of local anaesthesia.
- Biopsy: Also known as TURBT (transurethral resection of bladder tumor), the process involves scrapping a bladder tissue, via a cystoscope. The tissue is sent to the laboratory and is observed under a microscope to look for cancerous traces. If the patient has been tested positive, it implies that cancerous pathogens persist in the lining of the bladder. However, if that is the case it is mandatory for the patient to undertake the following tests:
- X-ray of the chest
- CT Scan
- MRI Scan
- Bone Scan
Bladder Cancer Treatment in India
This process involves surgically removing the tumour and at times adjacent healthy tissues are also removed. There are various types of surgery for bladder cancer; the surgery one undergoes will depend on the stage of cancer.
Initial-stage Bladder Cancer
- TURBT (Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumour) – This surgery is performed to treat cancer which is restricted to the bladder’s inner linings. The procedure involves inserting a wire loop via the urethra of the patient and into the bladder. These loops, under the influence of electric current, can destroy cancer pathogens.
- Segmental Cystectomy – Also known as Partial Cystectomy – Part of the bladder which is infected with cancer is surgically removed. This procedure is performed under the influence of general anaesthesia, and hospital admittance ranges from seven to ten days.
Invasive Bladder Cancer (Later Stage)
- Radical Cystectomy – In this the entire bladder is removed along with the nearby lymph nodes. Sometimes among males, prostate and seminal vesicles are also removed, and among females, the uterus, ovaries and a portion of the vagina may be surgically removed.
If the whole bladder is removed, then a urinary conduit is created so that the urine can be drained into a urostomy bag. A section of intestine is used to create a small internal reservoir for urine; a process termed as a cutaneous continent urinary diversion, which is linked to the urethra so that the urinary functions are restored.
The other treatment option for treating bladder cancer is undergoing therapy. The various types of therapies that one can undergo are listed below. Palliative care is given alongside therapy so that the patient can cope up with the side effects and exhaustion after chemotherapy and other arduous therapies.
Best bladder cancer oncologists and hospitals In India
- Dr. Anant Kumar– Max Super Specialty Hospital, Saket
- Dr. Aditya Pradhan- BLK Super Speciality Hospital, New Delhi
- Dr. Rajesh Ahlawat– Fortis Escorts, Delhi
- Dr. Sanjay Gogoi– Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurugram
- Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurugram- Dr Vinod Raina
- Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurugram – Dr Rahul Bhargava
- Max Smart Super Speciality Hospital, Saket – Dr Rahul Naithani
- BLK Super Speciality Hospital, New Delhi- Dr Amit Agarwal
- BLK Super Speciality Hospital, New Delhi- Dr Dharma Choudhary
Bladder Cancer Treatment Cost in India
India’s healthcare facilities offer incredible Bladder Cancer Surgery with exorbitant cost savings when compared to the cost in USA or UK. Taking logistics, airfare and lodging expenses into account, the inclusive medical tourism packages still offer incredible savings.
The cost of undergoing surgery for treating initial stage blood cancer starts from USD 5000 whereas the cost of treating later-stage surgery starts from USD 10,000 to 12,000. Radiation therapy costs near about USD 5000, and the cost of chemotherapy per cycle is USD 500.
The cost of availing blood cancer treatment in India also depends on various other factors.
- Choice of hospital
- Preference of Stem Cell Therapy Centre
- Choice of the oncologist
- Type, grade, sight and severity of the cancer
- Post-operative expenses
Various healthcare platforms like MedMonks offers 24*7 assistance to the patients and guarantee top-notch treatment at an affordable price. Having tied up with leading hospitals in India, MedMonks sticks to its vision of dispensing absolute gold standard of care to its patient without charging a single penny. Their team helps you walk through the entire procedure and extend their hands in making all the arrangements for you, even attaining a medical visa for your treatment.
Does bladder cancer relapse?
If the cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, then it is treatable. However, bladder cancer has a high likelihood of relapse even if it is treated timely, which is why it becomes mandatory for the patients to undergo regular screening tests.
What are chemotherapy regimens for bladder cancer?
Some popular regimens for bladder cancer are as follows:
- Cisplatin and gemcitabine
- Carboplatin (Paraplatin) and gemcitabine
- MVAC, a combination of four drugs: methotrexate (multiple brand names), vinblastine (Velban, Velsar), doxorubicin, and cisplatin
- Dose-dense (DD)-MVAC