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Brain Tumour Treatment

Blindsided by your Benign Meningioma?

Brain tumours are petrifying, but the word ‘benign’ comes as a relief for the patients. Patients take note, sometimes an undetected non-malignant tumour becomes a stealth invader. Medmonks has tie-ups with a team of specialists and holds potential in assembling the concerned expert for an ailment. Our team helps patient in exploring all options and drafts a consensus about the suitable course of care for their patients. Meningioma treatment in India is the best and can be availed at an economical cost.

Meningioma

A meningioma is a tumor that originates from the meninges, a membrane that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. Medically it cannot be associated with a brain tumor; it is classified under this because it sometimes compresses or squeezes the brain, adjacent nerves and vessels.

If a patient’s meningioma doesn’t exhibit any symptoms, the doctors closely monitor the patient. Meningiomas have known to exhibit promising results when being exposed to radiation therapy alone, including highly meticulous stereotactic radiosurgery. At times meningioma is removed via surgery.

Meningioma is predominantly common among women and is often diagnosed at older ages. Most meningiomas mature very sluggishly and take years without exhibiting symptoms. However, in some cases, their impact on adjacent brain tissue, nerves or vessels may pose severe disability.

 Symptoms of Meningioma

Most meningiomas mature over the years, often devoid of exhibiting significant signs and symptoms, such subtle tumours do not demand immediate treatment and are scrutinised over the years. The treatment depends on where the tumour starts developing, whether in the brain or rarely in the spine.

Some of the symptoms are as follows:

  • Poor vision or blurriness
  • Aggressive Headaches
  • Hearing ailment or ringing in the ears
  • Memory loss
  • Loss of smell
  • Episodes of seizures
  • Weakness

Patients should immediately visit a neuro-specialist if one experiences sudden episodes of seizure or changes in vision or memory and even persistent headaches. Sometimes meningioma is not related to tumour and is a result of head injury, stroke or headaches.

What causes Meningioma?

Meningioma has been associated with alteration in some cells in meninges which multiply uncontrollably, thereby resulting in a meningioma tumor. The only cause backed by extensive research on benign meningiomas are inherited genetic syndromes that seldom occur and exposing one’s head and neck to therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation.

A lot of negative outcomes about dental X-rays and power lines have been surfing, but it is still not supported by a conclusive paradigm. Further research has been warranted in finding the link between meningiomas and cell phone usage. Role of hormones, breast cancer and reproductive factors in increasing odds of meningioma have yet not been backed by a plausible explanation.

The rare inherited disorder neurofibromatosis 2 has been linked with increasing the odds of meningioma and other brain tumours. Obesity is another cause of meningioma, a higher BMI (body mass index) puts the patient at risk for many types of cancers, and a higher occurrence of meningiomas among overweight individuals has been observed in several large studies.

Types of Meningiomas

Meningiomas mostly occur in the brain, but some of its types are as follows:

Convexity meningiomas– These grow towards the front of the brain, on its surface. This type accounts for 20 percent of meningiomas cases. The symptoms are dormant until the tumour matures. Some of the symptoms include seizures, headaches, and visual problems and neurological damage.

Falcine and parasagittal meningiomas develop between the two sides of the brain, around large blood vessels. This type of tumour sometimes hinders with blood circulation in the brain.

Intraventricular meningiomas develop within brain ventricles, which carry cerebrospinal fluid. This sight of tumor blocks the flow of the fluid, thereby resulting in headaches and dizziness.

Skull Base Meningiomas– Skull base meningiomas mature under the brain and along the base of the skull. These tumors are problematic to remove via surgery when compared to brain meningiomas because they are situated in or near the bones of the skull.

Various types of skull base meningiomas are as follows:

Cavernous sinus meningiomas affect the cavernous sinus. Such types may pose risk factors such as facial pain, double vision and dizziness.

Clival meningiomas develop on the underside of the cerebrum within the posterior cranial fossa. These types of meningiomas often grow as part of a larger lesion within the sphenoid bone.

Foramen magnum meningiomas originate in the hole in the base of the skull that the spinal cord passes through (called the foramen magnum).

Olfactory groove meningiomas mature near the olfactory nerve, which is located between the brain and the nose. Olfactory meningioma is associated with the risk of losing the sense of smell. If the tumor enlarges, it may impact one’s vision.

Posterior fossa / petrous meningiomas are located on the underside of the brain. They can cause facial pain, such as trigeminal neuralgia, and can produce spasms in the face.

Sphenoid wing meningiomas originate in the sphenoid ridge behind the eyes. These meningiomas put a patient at risk of visual ailments and facial numbness. In some cases, they have been known to cause visual impairment.

Spinal meningiomas are rare types of skull base meningiomas, and mostly middle-aged women are diagnosed with it. The symptoms of such type of tumours are back pain, numbness, and tingling.

Suprasellar meningiomas originate near the pituitary gland and the optic nerve at the base of the skull. Suprasellar meningiomas mature over the years but have been associated with risk of visual impairment.

Tentorial meningiomas such tumors seldom occur and typically develop on the surface of the tentorium cerebella in the brain. Such types of posterior fossa meningiomas have been known to cause severe headaches, episodes of seizures, and difficulty in walking.

Diagnosis of Meningioma

For meningioma diagnosis, a systematic neurological exam is conducted which is then followed by an imaging test that includes-

Computerized tomography (CT) scan– CT scans via X-rays capture cross-sectional pictures of a full brain. At times an iodine-based dye is used to enhance the scans.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)– In this, a magnetic field and radio waves depict clearer cross-sectional images of the brain and meningioma.

In some instances, tumour biopsies may be examined for confirming meningioma diagnosis.

Treatment for Meningioma

The treatment one undergoes for a meningioma depends on various factors such as:

  • Location and size of meningioma
  • The severity of tumour
  • Age and health of the patient
  • Wait-and-see approach

Surgery

Surgery is mostly performed when the indolent tumour suddenly starts maturing and spreading rampantly. In most cases, meningioma is completely removed.

If there are no traces of tumour post-surgery or a small piece persists, then no further treatment is required, but it is mandatory for the patient to take follow-up scans.

In some instances, small remaining tumour pieces are exposed to a form of radiation therapy known as stereotactic radiosurgery. In case of a malignant tumour, the patient will be made to undergo radiation.

Some of the risks associated with surgery are infection and bleeding. A meningioma that develops around the optic nerve can result in visual impairment.

Radiation therapy

At times when surgery fails to completely remove the meningioma, a patient is made to undergo radiation therapy.

This therapy is given so that the remaining meningioma pathogens are demolished, thereby mitigating the odds of meningioma relapse. Radiation therapy involves exposing the patients to high-voltage energy beams at the tumour sight.

The various options of Radiation therapy for meningiomas are as follows:

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS)– This type of radiation treatment involves exposing the patient to several beams of high-energy radiation at a tumour area. Radiosurgery doesn’t involve making incisions. However, radiosurgery is used to treat meningiomas that can’t be tackled with traditional surgery.

Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT)–  Small fractions of radiations are delivered for treating tumours which are large for radiosurgery or grown in sensitive areas such as the optic nerve.

Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)– This technique with the help of computer software, enhances the intensity of radiation targeting the meningioma site. This is mostly used to treat meningiomas located near sensitive brain structures or those which have a very complex shape. Proton beam radiation which uses radioactive protons to treat the tumour mitigates damage to the adjacent tissues.

Drugs

Chemotherapy– Drugs administered to treat meningiomas, it is an advanced version of delivering therapeutics when surgery and radiations fail. Researchers have engaged in in-depth study to analyse molecularly targeted effectiveness in treating meningioma.

Alternative medications

Alternative medicine treatments are not associated with treating meningiomas, but some hold potential in providing relief from the side effects of treatment or can help a patient cope with the stress of being diagnosed with a meningioma.

Some beneficial alternative medicine therapies are as follows:

  • Acupuncture
  • Hypnosis
  • Massage
  • Meditation
  • Music therapy
  • Relaxation exercises

What is the cost of Meningioma Treatment in India?

Meningioma treatment cost in India is comparatively less. The cost of surgery starts from USD 8000. Radiation therapy costs near about USD 5000, and the cost of chemotherapy per cycle is USD 500.

The cost of the complete treatment depends on various other factors.

  • Hospital preference
  • Choice of neuro-surgeon
  • Severity of meningioma
  • Post-surgery care expenses

Best Neuro-surgeon and Hospitals for Meningioma in India

Indian hospitals boast of exceptional surgical expertise, who with the help of ground-breaking technology and imaging techniques. The specialists in India customise treatment as per the severity of the patient’s disease. India’s panel of highly proficient neurosurgeons conducts state-of-the-art minimally invasive procedures with utmost meticulousness. The best neuro-surgeons and the hospitals for meningioma are as follows:

FAQ’s

  1. What is the procedure for treating gigantic tumours?

Patients whose tumors have enlarged coupled with swelling and mass undergo craniotomies. They require in two to three days of hospital admittance and can resume their daily activities within six weeks

  1. What are the side effects of radiosurgery?

Radiosurgery is associated with side effects such as swelling of brain tissue, for which the patients are on steroids so that the side effects can be contained. Other possible risks are neural structures damage in the adjacent neural cells.

  1. What is the cost of meningioma surgery in India?

The cost of meningioma surgery starts from USD 8000, total expenses incurred depends on various other factors such as choice of the surgeon and hospital.

Radiation Treatment for Brain Tumor