- 1 What is a Kidney Cancer?
- 2 Risk Factors & Symptoms
- 3 Kidney cancer Symptoms:
- 4 Kidney Cancer Diagnosis
- 5 Kidney Cancer Treatment
- 6 Chemotherapy
- 7 Best Kidney Cancer Hospitals and Oncologists in India
- 8 What is the cost of Kidney cancer treatment in India?
- 9 Kidney Cancer FAQ’s
What is a Kidney Cancer?
Kidney cancer originates in the kidneys (two bean-shaped organs located on either side of the spine). Kidneys are a crucial organ of our body which performs the function of sieving. Cancer originates when the nephrons, which are found in the Kidneys grow in an uncontrolled manner. The cells in any part of the body can emerge to be cancerous and infect other parts and vital organs of the body too.
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Risk Factors & Symptoms
Higher Body Mass Index: This theory has been supported by extensive research and is hence a notable factor which is linked to the risk of kidney cancer. Obesity has been found to be the driving force of kidney cancer, especially among women.
A recent study conducted by the researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has vividly shed light on the potency of abdominal fat in increasing odds of Kidney cancer.
A majority of female kidney cancer patients with significant abdominal fat when they were diagnosed with cancer died within three to four years, whereas more than half of women with not that significant amount of belly fat was alive after ten years of diagnosis. However, in men, abdominal fat seemed to show no association with kidney cancer survival.
Smoking: Smoking even one cigarette a day may up risk of kidney cancer and other various diseases when compared to a non- smoker.
Kidney Disease: Once an individual contracts kidney disease and is put on dialysis then the odds of kidney cancer may elevate.
Genome Traces: If family history persists or a first-degree relative is diagnosed with kidney cancer, then also the chances increase.
Elevated Blood Pressure: High blood pressure has been associated with increasing the likelihood of almost every disease and even cancer.
Kidney cancer Symptoms:
In the initial stages, kidney cancer does not exhibit any significant symptoms. Some of the symptoms are as follows: –
- Blood traces in urine
- Lumps in Abdomen
- Loss of weight
- Loss of appetite
- Fever not because of flu or cold
Kidney Cancer Diagnosis
A patient undergoes a complete physical exam, and after that, the patient is made to undertake various blood tests to confirm if any tumour cells persist. Some other tests include:
Urine Test: A patient is made to undergo microscopic and chemical tests a urine sample to see if traces of blood and other cancerous substances persists that contribute to the symptoms of kidney cancer.
CT Scan: Computed Tomography Scan via X-rays delivers complete cross-sectional screens of the body, thereby depicting the state of the organ such as the size, shape, and the sight of a tumour if it persists in the kidneys.
Blood Tests: Patient is made to undergo Complete blood count (CBC) so that the number of red blood cells, platelets and white blood cells, can be evaluated.
Imaging Tests: With the help of x-rays, sound waves, magnetic fields, or radioactive substances to scan images of the inside of a body, this test holds potential in how effectively the patient is responding to the treatment.
Kidney Cancer Treatment
Kidney Cancer Treatment depends on a couple of factors such as the type of cancer, stage, severity and patient’s overall health. The cancer is either removed via surgery or is treated with the help immunotherapy, targeted therapy and sometimes even a combination of therapy and surgery. At times, radiation therapy and chemotherapy are used for treating cancer. Various options for treatment are as follows:
1. Surgical removal of Kidney Cancer
The type of surgery one undergoes depends on how widespread one’s cancer is. The various types of surgeries are as follows:
- Radical nephrectomy: This procedure involves removing the kidney, adrenal gland and the adjacent infected tissue. At times, the adjacent lymph nodes are also removed. Radical nephrectomy requires making small incisions laparoscopically.
- Simple nephrectomy: In this procedure, only the infected kidneys are removed.
- Partial nephrectomy: A patient undergoes this surgery if he or she has been diagnosed with kidney cancer which is of size less than 4 cm. It involves removing the cancer in the kidney along with some tissue surrounding it. A patient can survive even with one kidney. If both the kidneys are removed, then the patient will be made to undergo dialysis or a Kidney Transplant.
If surgery fails to depict promising results, then the three are a wide range of therapies which involves exposing the patients to high radiations.
- Radiofrequency ablation involves exposing the patients to the high-volatile radio waves so that the cancerous cells can be targeted and potentially demolished.
- Cryotherapy is the technique to destroy tumour cells with the help of extreme cold.
- Arterial embolization is a procedure which involves inserting a catheter to deliver small particles that hamper the supply of blood to the uterine body. The procedure is performed for shrinking the tumour, and it is also used for treating uterine fibroids and adenomyosis.
This therapy holds potential in prepping one’s immune system to combat lethal cancer cells, thereby enhancing and restoring the body’s defence mechanism. The procedure involves administering substances which are naturally made in one’s body or are prepared in the laboratory. For treating metastatic kidney cancer, interleukin-2 or interferon alpha is used. A class of novel immunotherapies are being extensively studied for treating kidney cancer in an efficient manner.
A class of anti-angiogenic agents are used for targeting the blood vessels which permit the growth of tumour. Multikinase inhibitors or tyrosine kinase inhibitors are among the class of targeted agents or oral drugs that hold potential in obstructing the pathway of pathogens.
M-TOR inhibition is another vital targeted therapy which involves administering the drugs either orally or through IV. They have been associated with blocking a pathway which enables the blood vessels and aids the growth of tumour cells. Each of these drugs plays an exceptional role in targeting advanced kidney cancer.
Therapy delivered by exposing the patient to highly volatile X-rays or other radiations so that cancerous cells can be demolished.
This therapy is used to treat a restricted class of kidney cancer, especially kidney cancer in which there are spindle cells. Chemotherapy has proved to be of potential in halting the growth of the cancerous cells.
Best Kidney Cancer Hospitals and Oncologists in India
- Dr. Anant Kumar- Max Super Specialty Hospital, Saket
- Dr. Aditya Pradhan- BLK Super Speciality Hospital, New Delhi
- Dr. Rajesh Ahlawat- Fortis Escorts, Delhi
- Dr. Sanjay Gogoi- Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurugram
- Vinod Raina- Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurugram
- Amit Agarwal- BLK Super Speciality Hospital, New Delhi
What is the cost of Kidney cancer treatment in India?
Kidney Cancer treatment is cost-effective in India when compared to other countries. The cost of removing cancer surgically is USD 8000, and the cost of chemotherapy per cycle is USD 500. Radiation therapy costs near about USD 5000.
The cost of availing Kidney Cancer treatment in India also depends on various other factors.
- Choice of hospital
- Preference of the nephrologist
- The grade and severity of the cancer
- Post-operative expenses
Kidney Cancer FAQ’s
1. How can Kidney Cancer be averted?
The risk of Kidney Cancer can be mitigated if one sticks to a healthy regimen and undergoes kidney health check-up routinely. It is mandatory to stay hydrated so that the filtration process doesn’t get hampered. Incorporating a healthy diet, involving green leafy veggies, fruits and patients who have had kidney disease should take extra precautions and should avoid excess protein consumption and oily food. Weight management is a criterion for lowering odds of developing any disease and patients should refrain from smoking or alcohol because it has been associated with elevating the risk of kidney disease.
What are the stages of Kidney Cancer?
The various stages of Kidney Cancer are as follows:
Stage I: In this stage, tumor is smaller in size, not more than 7 centimetres and is restricted to the kidney.
Stage II: Tumour becomes slightly bigger than 7 centimetres but is only limited to the kidney.
Stage III: A tumor which initially originated in the kidney and has spread to at least one nearby lymph node. At times a tumour which originated in the main blood vessel of the Kidney invades the adjacent lymph node or cancer which enters the fatty tissue around the kidney and may also infect the adjacent nearby lymph nodes. Sometimes, cancerous pathogen invades the major veins or perinephric tissues but does not go beyond the ipsilateral adrenal gland and Gerota’s fascia.
Stage IV: Stage IV becomes critical as cancer has spread beyond the fatty layer of tissue around the kidney and at times it also invades the nearby lymph nodes or infects other vital organs such as the bowel, pancreas or lungs. Sometimes, cancer spreads beyond Gerota’s fascia including the contiguous extension into the ipsilateral adrenal gland.
Relapse: Sometimes situation of recurrence or relapse of cancer arises after treatment. It is not necessary that cancer recurs in the Kidney, it may also occur in other vital organs of the body.
What are the types of renal cancer?
The various types of Kidney cancers are as follows:
- Sarcomatoid renal (kidney) cancer- Sarcomatoid renal cancer has been linked with extremely worse outcomes when compared to sarcomatous kidney cancer. In this condition, cancerous pathogens imitate sarcoma cells such as those found in tissues, such as nerves, blood vessels, muscles, fibroid tissues and fat.
- Transitional cell cancer of the kidney or ureter- In this condition, malignant cells originate in the renal pelvis. The treatment approach for tackling this condition is very similar to bladder cancer.
- Wilms’ tumour – Such type of a kidney tumour occurs in children and is treated differently from the adult kidney cancer.